"Lifecycle" and "state" are two words not used often enough.architecture programming state distributed architecture
I'm a State Engineer. Are you, too?
TL;DR: We need to have a more thorough discussion about state and lifecycles in our industry.
I recently revisited The Twelve-Factor App by Heroku. It's a great read if you are deploying your own application, are interested in (organizational and/or technincal) scaling or curious of best practices when it comes to deployment.
As I was reading the manifest it struck me that there are two words that I hear all too infrequently in our industry, namely state and lifecycle. The words have different meaning, yet they are related in so many ways. All state has a lifecycle, otherwise the state would not be worth thinking of.
Software engineers are surrounded by state all the time. So are software architects. In fact, state can flow through every layer of a software stack. Not to mention how state can be spread out across a plethora in a distributed system; databases, caches, queues etc. State also applies to a wide range of scopes; within a function/method, within a class, within a software component, within a distributed application, or even an orchestration of distributed applications.
As software engineers we need to respect state and how inherently difficult it to get it right. The majority of bugs are related to state in one way of another. This is why we always need to formalize how and where state is stored. Asking the question “Do we need the state?” is also worth doing so often.
The how is important. How can we as software engineers minimize errors due to state? Here are a couple of ideas:
Use constants as much as possible. Make it clear that a variable cannot be changed. The Erlang and Haskell programming languages go as far as not even allowing changing the values of any variable. One needs to define a new variable.
Use immutable data structures as much as possible. Slightly related to the previous paragraph. This is especially important when state is moving through a system. Sure, this will make systems slower in some case, but use immutability by default and mutability only where it's really needed. In Erlang all state sent between components (called “processes”) is immutable.
Isolate state and minimize inter-state dependencies. Make sure that the implementation modifying state is isolated. This makes it easier to get an overview of various states in the system and what makes them transition into new states. Two ways of isolating state are two put it in a separate (possibly, green) thread or, even better, binding to a function/method scope.
Isolation of state can be an argument to decouple components of a bigger system into smaller isolated ones. Paradoxically, isolating state can also introduce other issues. A common issue of decoupling state into distributed components is that state transitions can fail due to network and/or timing issues.
Make state shortlived. The fewer state changes the easier it becomes to reason about them. This is where state lifecycle becomes an important concept. A shortlived state makes programmers less prone to introduce errors. Maybe your state can be computed from some other external state.
The Erlang programming language brings the concept of “supervisors” to the table. This enables you to do exactly this.
Start thinking about asynchronicity. An async call between component leads to a looser coupling. It also means that unexpected states will not break other states.
For distributed systems; learn about the CAP theorem. The CAP theorem states that in the case of a network partition (P), you have choose between availability (A) and consistency (C). The concept of a CRDT can also be interesting to know about if you'd like to relax consistency a bit.
Have a look at the concepts of CQS, CQRS, event sourcing. Don't worry, you don't necessarily have to use them. But give them some thought for a moment. CQS and CQRS are kind of similar. Event sourcing can be used with CQRS to make things really badass. Are you optimizing for reads or writes? Choose.
This list above is definitely not exhaustive and I'd love to get more input in the comments below.
Over the past couple of years, learning new programming languages and studying distributed systems engineering has given me a huge toolset when it comes to reasoning about state. This is the one reason I encourage software developers to learn about new software paradigms and one programming language per year. My greatest insight into how state can be dealt with has definitely been looking into how the Erlang programming language. A good resource when it comes to distributed systems is reading the ZeroMQ Guide.
Lately, I've been thinking about retitling myself as a “state engineer”. Maybe you should, too? Feel free to discuss below or contact me by some other means.